Commit 6c22d91d authored by hannahm's avatar hannahm
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tidying notes up

parent fdf706a2
\documentclass[main-lines.tex]{subfiles}
\begin{document}
In this work we focus on data from the two LIGO observatories; LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston.
The GW strain sensitivity for the Hanford and Livingston observatories is shown in Fig.~\ref{fig:strainSensitivity} in red and blue respectively for a snapshot of Observing Run 2.
The inset enlarges the region around the $60\,{\rm Hz}$ feature.
......@@ -33,9 +29,11 @@ Each trace shows the amplitude spectral density (ASD) for approximately $5$ minu
\caption{\label{fig:powerCascade}
Cascade plot showing the amplitude spectral density of the Handford PEM monitor \CSOneName~ (corner station, phase 1) over time.
Each trace corresponds to $320\,{\rm s}$ ($\approx 5\,{\rm min}$) of data ($210$ lines plotted).
\han{Notes: I've included this as it shows the wandering of the power line quite nicely, but we'll need to check with LIGO that this plot can be used. I think we might need permission to publish something like this as it shows auxiliary data that would not be publicly released}
}
\end{figure}
\begin{comment}
Fig.~\ref{fig:peakOverTime} shows the peak frequency of the nine reference channels for each detector.
The peak is found by computing the ASD and finding the maximum frequency bin within the width of the $60\,{\rm Hz}$ power line ($59.93$--$60.06\,{\rm Hz}$~\cite{GWOSC:online}).
To the resolution of the binning, the peak frequencies of the nine reference channels are indistinguishable from each other over the two day period plotted.
......@@ -63,4 +61,5 @@ to dos
\item check data quality for Livingston
\end{itemize}
}
\end{document}
\end{comment}
\documentclass[main-lines.tex]{subfiles}
\begin{document}
Gravitational wave (GW) observatories such as Advanced LIGO~\cite{AasiEtAlAdLIGO:2015} and Advanced Virgo~\cite{AcerneseEtAlAdVirgo:2015} require high sensitivity to make GW detections.
To meet these sensitivity needs, GW observatories employ a variety of techniques to isolate them from environmental noise.
However they cannot be fully isolated and detector data contains short (glitches~\cite{DavisEtAl:2020}) and long (narrow spectral~\cite{CovasEtAl:2018}) duration noise artifacts.
Mitigation and removal of nosie spectral lines is an area of active study.
Mitigation and removal of noise spectral lines is an area of active study.
GW detectors have a wealth of physical environmental monitors (PEM) which record environmental effects on the instrument and are used to assess the quality of the data at any one time~\cite{DetCharGW150914:2016,MarinShoemakerWeissPEM:1997}.
Much effort has been made to identify the source of lines and, wherever possible, to remove the source of the noise.
For example, in Ref.~\cite{CovasEtAl:2018}, a comb artifact (with $1\,{\rm Hz}$ spacing and $0.5\,{\rm Hz}$ offset) is identified in Observing Run 1 data to originate from blinking LEDs in the timing system for the observatory.
The effect whas reduced by preventing the LEDs from flashing.
The effect was reduced by preventing the LEDs from flashing.
Preventing the process causing noise lines is not always possible and in many cases the cause remains unidentified.
It can, however, be possible to remove the effect of a noise line after data acquisition.
Information from PEMs provides a useful resource for removing noise from the GW data if there is a correlation between the PEM channel and the noise in the GW channel.
Recent work has used PEM channels to remove noise spectral lines with machine learning techniques~\cite{VajenteEtAl:2020,OrmistonEtAl:2020}.
Recent work has used PEM channels to remove noise spectral lines with machine learning techniques~\cite{VajenteEtAl:2020, OrmistonEtAl:2020}.
Noise lines pose a particular difficulty to searches for continuous gravitational waves (CWs); persistent, periodic gravitational wave signals which are expected to be emitted by rotating neutron stars.
Searches may cover the entire sky~\cite{} or target specific objects such as millisecond pulsars~\cite{O3PulsarSearch:2020,KnownPulsarsTwoHarminics:2019,KnownPulsarSearchO1:017}, low mass x-ray binaries~\cite{ScoX1ViterbiO2,SearchCrossCorrO1:2017,MeadorsEtAlS6LMXBSearch:2017,ScoX1ViterbiO1:2017,RadiometerO1O2:2019,SearchRadiometerO1:2017,MiddO2LMXBs:2020}, and supernova remnants~\cite{MillhouseEtAl:2020,LindblomOwenSNR:2020,SNRSearch:2019}.%, and post-merger remants[].
Noise lines pose a particular difficulty to searches for continuous waves (CWs); persistent, periodic GW signals which are expected to be emitted by rotating neutron stars.
Searches may cover the entire sky~\cite{AllSkyO2:2019,EinsteinAtHomeAllSky:2021} or target specific objects such as millisecond pulsars~\cite{O3PulsarSearch:2020,KnownPulsarsTwoHarminics:2019,KnownPulsarSearchO1:017}, low mass x-ray binaries~\cite{ScoX1ViterbiO2, SearchCrossCorrO1:2017, MeadorsEtAlS6LMXBSearch:2017, ScoX1ViterbiO1:2017, RadiometerO1O2:2019, SearchRadiometerO1:2017, MiddO2LMXBs:2020}, and supernova remnants~\cite{SNRO3a:2021, MillhouseEtAlSNR:2020, LindblomOwenSNR:2020, SNRSearch:2019}.%, and post-merger remants?[].
The noise lines are often loud and can obscure a CW signal in the affected frequency bins.
CW candidates in proximity to noise line are typically vetoed (e.g. Ref.~\cite{ScoX1ViterbiO2}).
Efforts have been made to reduce the vunerability of CW searches to noise lines~\cite{BayleyEtAl:2020,KeitelEtAl:2014}.
Efforts have been made to reduce the vulnerability of CW searches to noise lines~\cite{BayleyEtAl:2020,KeitelEtAl:2014}.
......@@ -41,4 +37,3 @@ In Sec.~\ref{sec:results} we test the algorithm using GW data and discuss our co
\end{document}
\documentclass[main-lines.tex]{subfiles}
\begin{document}
Adaptive noise cancellation provides an estimate of a signal which has been corrupted by some interference or noise.
The method can be applied in the situation where there is a dataset of interest, the \emph{primary} signal and a witness to the interference; the \emph{reference} signal.
The primary signal contains the information of interest, plus some additional unwanted interference.
The reference signal contains a measurement of the interference which is correlated in some unknown way to the noise in the primary signal.
For our purposes, the primary signal is the gravitational-wave channel and the reference is a PEM recording data from the power grid (see Sec.~\ref{sec:60Hz}).
The ANC computes an estimate of the noise as it appears in the primary and subtracts it.
ANC provides an estimate of a signal which has been corrupted by some interference or noise.
The method can be applied in the situation where a dataset is corrupted by interference as long as there is an independent witness to the interference.
In this work we refer to the two timeseries as the \emph{primary} and \emph{reference}.
The primary contains the information of interest, plus some additional unwanted interference.
The reference contains a measurement of the interference which is correlated in some unknown way to the noise in the primary signal.
For our purposes, the primary is the gravitational-wave channel and the reference is a PEM recording data from the power grid (see Sec.~\ref{sec:60Hz}).
The aim of the ANC is to use the reference to compute an estimate of the noise as it appears in the primary and subtract it.
In this section, we describe the implementation of ANC used in this work.
The primary timeseries $d_i$ (evenly sampled at time steps $i = 0,\dots,N$) is known to contain an unwanted interference, which we label the `clutter' $c_i$.
......@@ -23,7 +19,7 @@ We use $r_i$ to construct an estimate $y_i$ of $c_i$ and remove it in the time d
The filtered timeseries is
\begin{eqnarray}
e_i &~=~& d_i - y_i \,, \\
&~\approx~& h_i + n_i \,.\\
&~\approx~& h_i + n_i \,.
\end{eqnarray}
The value of $y_i$ is the scalar product of the tap-input vector $\mathbf{u}$ and the tap-weight vector $\mathbf{w}$.
The tap-input $\mathbf{u}$ is taken directly from the reference signal and is defined as
......@@ -93,4 +89,3 @@ In Sec.~\ref{sec:results} we trial a selection of $M$ values for GW data.
\end{document}
\documentclass[main-lines.tex]{subfiles}
\han{Notes: we have applied the ANC to a small section of Observing Run 2 data for now. The current plots show about one hour of data from LIGO Hanford and use a single witness channel. }
%We apply the ANC described in Sec.~\ref{sec:method} to a small selection of O2 data as a testing ground.
%We test the algorithm on XX days of data (\han{currently about one hour}), using a single witness channel (\CSOneName).
%The method is first applied to the Hanford observatory data and then to the same data with the addition of a continuous gravitational wave injection.
\begin{document}
\han{To do: add something about how long it takes to run. E.g. Our implementation of the ARLS is written in python and takes approximately XX seconds per XX seconds of data on a XXX computer}.
We apply the ANC described in Sec.~\ref{sec:method} to a small selection of O2 data as a testing ground.
We test the algorithm on XX days of data (\han{currently about one hour}), using a single witness channel (\CSOneName).
The method is first applied to the Hanford observatory data and then to the same data with the addition of a continuous gravitational wave injection.
Our implementation of the ARLS is written in python and takes \han{[to do:] approximately XX seconds per XX seconds of data on a XXX computer}.
\subsection{GW data}
\subsection{Initial results}
Figure~\ref{fig:resultM5} shows the ASD of the primary and filtered data in black and orange respectively using $M=5$.
We find that if $M$ is too small, the subtraction is not effective and if $M$ is too large, the ANC adds noise around the $60\,{\rm Hz}$ line (see Appendix~\ref{app:failedMs}).
We find that if $M$ is too small, the subtraction is not effective and if $M$ is too large, the ANC adds noise around the $60\,{\rm Hz}$ line (see Appendix).
\han{think about a figure of merit for the amount of subtraction}
\begin{figure*}
......@@ -30,7 +27,8 @@ The method as implemented here does not successfully remove harmonics of the $60
This may be because the coupling of higher harmonics in the interferometer has a different delay to the line at $60\,{\rm Hz}$.
A further problem is observed as ANC introduces some noise above and below harmonics as shown by the wider spectrum and residual displayed in Fig.~\ref{fig:ASDWide}.
If the frequency range of interest is focused around the $60\,{\rm Hz}$ line (e.g. for a narrow band search), this should not impose a problem for CW searches.
However the addition of noise from any method is clearly not ideal and this is an area for future improvement.
\han{We have discussed bandpassing the data before the ANC.}
%However the addition of noise from any method is clearly not ideal and this is an area for future improvement.
\begin{figure*}
\includegraphics[width=0.49\textwidth]{images/primFiltRef.png}%{../notes/plots/orderTests/plots5/primFiltRef_full-1166401536.pdf}
......@@ -40,14 +38,11 @@ Left: Wide frequency view of the ASD of the for the primary (top), reference (mi
Right: the absolute residual between the primary and the reference signal.
The grey lines indicate the harmonics of the $60\,{\rm Hz}$ line.
The largest residual is at $60\,{\rm Hz}$ as expected, however there are also peaks in the residuals above and below the frequency of the higher harmonics.
\han{May be clearer to zoom in around one or two harmonics rather than the full spectrum.}
%\han{May be clearer to zoom in around one or two harmonics rather than the full spectrum.}
}
\end{figure*}
\subsection{GW data + injection}
\han{to do....}
%\vspace{2em}
......@@ -61,4 +56,4 @@ The largest residual is at $60\,{\rm Hz}$ as expected, however there are also pe
%\end{itemize}
%}
\end{document}
......@@ -239,6 +239,26 @@ archivePrefix = "arXiv",
adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@ARTICLE{EinsteinAtHomeAllSky:2021,
author = {{Steltner}, B. and {Papa}, M.~A. and {Eggenstein}, H. -B. and {Allen}, B. and {Dergachev}, V. and {Prix}, R. and {Machenschalk}, B. and {Walsh}, S. and {Zhu}, S.~J. and {Behnke}, O. and {Kwang}, S.},
title = "{Einstein@Home All-sky Search for Continuous Gravitational Waves in LIGO O2 Public Data}",
journal = {\apj},
keywords = {Gravitational waves, Neutron stars, Compact objects, Astronomy data analysis, 678, 1108, 288, 1858, Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena, General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology},
year = 2021,
month = mar,
volume = {909},
number = {1},
eid = {79},
pages = {79},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/abc7c9},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
eprint = {2009.12260},
primaryClass = {astro-ph.HE},
adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2021ApJ...909...79S},
adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
......@@ -330,6 +350,28 @@ publisher = {Prentice Hall},
}
% all sky
@ARTICLE{AllSkyO2:2019,
author = {{Abbott}, B.~P. and {Abbott}, R. and {Abbott}, T.~D. and {Abraham}, S. and {Acernese}, F. and {Ackley}, K. and {Adams}, C. and {Adhikari}, R.~X. and {Adya}, V.~B. and {Affeldt}, C. and {Agathos}, M. and {Agatsuma}, K. and {Aggarwal}, N. and {Aguiar}, O.~D. and {Aiello}, L. and {Ain}, A. and {Ajith}, P. and {Allen}, G. and {Allocca}, A. and {Aloy}, M.~A. and {Altin}, P.~A. and {Amato}, A. and {Ananyeva}, A. and {Anderson}, S.~B. and {Anderson}, W.~G. and {Angelova}, S.~V. and {Antier}, S. and {Appert}, S. and {Arai}, K. and {Araya}, M.~C. and {Areeda}, J.~S. and {Ar{\`e}ne}, M. and {Arnaud}, N. and {Arun}, K.~G. and {Ascenzi}, S. and {Ashton}, G. and {Aston}, S.~M. and {Astone}, P. and {Aubin}, F. and {Aufmuth}, P. and {AultONeal}, K. and {Austin}, C. and {Avendano}, V. and {Avila-Alvarez}, A. and {Babak}, S. and {Bacon}, P. and others and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration} and {Virgo Collaboration}},
title = "{All-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars using Advanced LIGO O2 data}",
journal = {\prd},
keywords = {Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena, General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology},
year = 2019,
month = jul,
volume = {100},
number = {2},
eid = {024004},
pages = {024004},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.100.024004},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
eprint = {1903.01901},
primaryClass = {astro-ph.HE},
adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019PhRvD.100b4004A},
adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% PEM
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
......@@ -1852,24 +1894,45 @@ archivePrefix = {arXiv},
}
@ARTICLE{MillhouseEtAl:2020,
@ARTICLE{MillhouseEtAlSNR:2020,
author = {{Millhouse}, Margaret and {Strang}, Lucy and {Melatos}, Andrew},
title = "{Search for gravitational waves from twelve young supernova remnants with a hidden Markov model in Advanced LIGO's second observing run}",
journal = {arXiv e-prints},
title = "{Search for gravitational waves from 12 young supernova remnants with a hidden Markov model in Advanced LIGO's second observing run}",
journal = {\prd},
keywords = {General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena, Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics},
year = 2020,
month = mar,
eid = {arXiv:2003.08588},
pages = {arXiv:2003.08588},
month = oct,
volume = {102},
number = {8},
eid = {083025},
pages = {083025},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.102.083025},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
eprint = {2003.08588},
primaryClass = {gr-qc},
adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2020arXiv200308588M},
adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2020PhRvD.102h3025M},
adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@ARTICLE{SNRO3a:2021,
author = {{The LIGO Scientific Collaboration} and {the Virgo Collaboration} and {the KAGRA Collaboration} and {Abbott}, R. and {Abbott}, T.~D. and {Abraham}, S. and {Acernese}, F. and {Ackley}, K. and {Adams}, A. and {Adams}, C. and {Adhikari}, R.~X. and {Adya}, V.~B. and {Affeldt}, C. and {Agarwal}, D. and {Agathos}, M. and {Agatsuma}, K. and {Aggarwal}, N. and others },
title = "{Searches for continuous gravitational waves from young supernova remnants in the early third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Virgo}",
journal = {arXiv e-prints},
keywords = {Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena},
year = 2021,
month = may,
eid = {arXiv:2105.11641},
pages = {arXiv:2105.11641},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
eprint = {2105.11641},
primaryClass = {astro-ph.HE},
adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2021arXiv210511641T},
adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
% S6 search for sco x1 and XTE J1751-305
@ARTICLE{MeadorsEtAlS6LMXBSearch:2017,
author = {{Meadors}, G.~D. and {Goetz}, E. and {Riles}, K. and {Creighton}, T. and
......
......@@ -46,58 +46,7 @@
\title[test short title]{Adaptive noise cancellation for gravitational-wave data}% Force line breaks with \\
%\thanks{this would be a footnoted on the first page}%
\author{Hannah Middleton}
\affiliation{%
School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia
}%
\affiliation{
OzGrav-Melbourne, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery, Parkville, Australia
}
\author{Sofia Suvorova}
\affiliation{%
School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia
}%
\affiliation{%
Engineering (check affiliation)
}%
\affiliation{
OzGrav-Melbourne, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery, Parkville, Australia
}
\author{Andrew Melatos}
\affiliation{%
School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia
}%
\affiliation{
OzGrav-Melbourne, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery, Parkville, Australia
}
\author{Robin Evans}
\affiliation{%
Engineering (check affiliation)
}%
\affiliation{
OzGrav-Melbourne, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery, Parkville, Australia
}
\author{William Moran}
\affiliation{%
Engineering (check affiliation)
}%
\affiliation{
OzGrav-Melbourne, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery, Parkville, Australia
}
\author{add other authors.....}
\affiliation{%
affiliation
}%
%\input{authors.tex}
\date{\today}% It is always \today, today,
......@@ -120,17 +69,18 @@ We focus on the $60\,{\rm Hz}$ interference caused by the United States power gr
\maketitle
\section{introduction}
\subfile{anc-intro.tex}
\input{anc-intro.tex}
\label{sec:intro}
\section{Method}
\subfile{anc-method}
\input{anc-method.tex}
\label{sec:method}
\section{$60\,{\rm Hz}$ line}
\subfile{anc-60Hz}
\input{anc-60Hz.tex}
\label{sec:60Hz}
......@@ -146,14 +96,15 @@ We focus on the $60\,{\rm Hz}$ interference caused by the United States power gr
\section{Results}
\subfile{anc-results}
\input{anc-results.tex}
\label{sec:results}
\begin{comment}
\section{Conclusions}
%\subfile{anc-conclusion}
\label{sec:conclusion}
\han{to do}
\end{comment}
\appendix
\subfile{anc-app}
......
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